Gender Differences on COVID-19 Related Anxiety Among Students


  • Andi Thahir Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan
  • Sulastri Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan
  • Siti Zahra Bulantika Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan
  • Tiara Novita Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan


Anxiety, students, COVID-19


The COVID-19 pandemic creates complex problems and in almost all aspects of life, everyone has been anxious, worried, and panicked about survival. Starting with children, young and old, men and women feel anxious about the threat of COVID-19. This study aimed to determine the differences in anxiety levels between male and female students during the COVID-19 period based on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (Hamilton, 1969). This study used a survey method with a descriptive design. Sampling using accidental sampling, 396 respondents consisted of 99 male and 297 female with age range of 21-23 years was acquired. Data analysis was based on univariate and bivariate analysis using Chi-Square. The results showed that overall respondents were experiencing high levels of anxiety about COVID-19. On the other hand, there was non-significant difference in anxiety levels between male and female students in facing the COVID-19 pandemic; thereby, indicating that gender did not have significant role in emotional reactivity, such as anxiety and fear. Anxiety would arise when there would be environmental pressures that can hinder one's activities of both male and female students.


Andrews, G., Basu, A., Cuijpers, P., Craske, M. G., McEvoy, P., English, C. L., & Newby, J. M. (2018). Computer therapy for the anxiety and depression disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: An updated meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 55(1), 70-78.

Anna, L. K. (2020). Anxiety level due to corona virus outbreak increases. Retrieved from tingkatkecemasan - akibat-wabah-virus-corona-meningkat

Balsam, R. H. (2018). Castration anxiety revisited: Especially female castration anxiety. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 38(1), 11-22.

Bulantika, S. Z., Wibowo, M. E., & Jafar, M. (2018). Group counseling with systematic desensitization techniques and thought-stopping techniques to reduce social anxiety. Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 7(2), 106-112.

Chang, E. C. (2018). Relationship between loneliness and symptoms of anxiety and depression in African American men and women: Evidence for gender as a moderator. Personality and Individual Differences, 120(1), 138-143.

Conroy, A. A., Ruark, A., & Tan, J. Y. (2020). Re-conceptualising gender and power relations for sexual and reproductive health: Contrasting narratives of tradition, unity, and rights. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 22(1), 48-64.

Dai, N. F. (2020). Community stigma against the COVID-19 pandemic. National Proceedings of COVID-19, 1(1), 66-73.

Daradjat, Z. (2016). Mental health. Indonesia: Gunung Agung.

De Jong, C., DeJong-Verhagen, J., Pols, R., Verbrugge, C., & Baldacchino, A. (2020). Psychological impact of the acute COVID-19 period on patients with substance use disorders: We are all in this together. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 28(1), 163-172.

Efferin, S., Frisko, D., & Hartanto, M. (2016). Management control system, leadership and gender ideology. Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, 32(1), 44-52.

Fawzy, M., & Hamed, S. A. (2017). Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt. Psychiatry Research, 255, 186-194.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2018). Specificity of relations between adolescents’ cognitive emotion regulation strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Cognition and Emotion, 32(7), 1401-1408.

Goel, S., Hawi, S., Goel, G., Thakur, V. K., Agrawal, A., Hoskins, C., …& Cross, G. (2020). Resilient and agile engineering solutions to address societal challenges such as coronavirus pandemic. Materials Today Chemistry, 17(4), 345-360.

Hamilton, M. (1969). Diagnosis and rating of anxiety. British Journal of Psychology, 3(1), 76-79.

Hill, F., Mammarella, I. C., Devine, A., Caviola, S., Passolunghi, M. C., & Sz?cs, D. (2016). Maths anxiety in primary and secondary school students: Gender differences, developmental changes and anxiety specificity. Learning and Individual Differences, 48, 45-53.

Hofmann, S. G., & Otto, M. W. (2017). Cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder: Evidence-based and disorder specific treatment techniques. New York: Routledge.

Hopkins, P. D., & Shook, N. J. (2017). A review of sociocultural factors that may underlie differences in African American and European American anxiety. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 49, 104-113.

Huang, Y., & Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: A web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Research, 11(2), 95-104.

Irwanto, F. H. (2017). The effectiveness of giving alprazolam 0.5 mg oral preoperatively on decreasing salivary alpha-amylase levels as an indicator of anxiety in patients who will undergo breast tumor surgery. Anesthesia and Critical Care Magazine, 35(2), 68-74.

Kresna, A., & Ahyar, J. (2020). The effect of physical distancing and social distancing on health in a linguistic approach. Journal of Syntax Transformation, 1(4), 14-19.

Lenton-Brym, A. P., Rogojanski, J., Hood, H. K., Vorstenbosch, V., McCabe, R. E., & Antony, M. M. (2020). Development and validation of Ryerson Social Anxiety Scales. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 54(1), 1-19.

Macauley, K., Plummer, L., Bemis, C., Brock, G., Larson, C., & Spangler, J. (2018). Prevalence and predictors of anxiety in healthcare professions students. Health Professions Education, 4(3), 176-185. .hpe.2018.01.001

Matud, M. P. (2004). Gender differences in stress and coping styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1401-1415.

Megeri, D., & Khoosal, D. (2007). Anxiety and depression in males experiencing gender dysphoria. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 22(1), 77-81.

Mikocka-Walus, A., Pittet, V., Rossel, J. B., von Känel, R., Anderegg, C., Bauerfeind, P., …& Bengoa, J. M. (2016). Symptoms of depression and anxiety are independently associated with clinical recurrence of inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 14(6), 829-835.

Olff, M. (2017). Sex and gender differences in post-traumatic stress disorder: An update. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8(4), 1351204.

Portman, R. M., Bradbury, J., & Lewis, K. (2018). Social physique anxiety and physical activity behaviour of male and female exercisers. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(2), 257-265.

Pradana, A. A., & Casman, C. (2020). The effect of social distancing policies on the covid-19 outbreak on vulnerable groups in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Health Policy, 9(2), 61-67.

Renner, K. H., Hock, M., Bergner-Köther, R., & Laux, L. (2018). Differentiating anxiety and depression: The state-trait anxiety-depression inventory. Cognition and Emotion, 32(7), 1409-1423.

Ripper, C. A., Boyes, M. E., Clarke, P. J. F., & Hasking, P. A. (2018). Emotional reactivity, intensity, and perseveration: Independent dimensions of trait affect and associations with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 121, 93-99.

Risman, B. J. (2018). Where the millennials will take us: A new generation wrestles with the gender structure. London:Oxford University Press.

Salkind, N. J. (2009). Theories of human development: History of emergence, basic conceptions, comparative analysis, and applications. Indonesia: Nusa Media Publishing.

Schaller, M. A., Griesinger, G., & Banz-Jansen, C. (2016). Women show a higher level of anxiety during IVF treatment than men and hold different concerns: A cohort study. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 293(5), 1137-1145.

Thahir, A., & Rizkiyani, D. (2017). The effect of rational emotive behavioral therapy (rebt) counseling in reducing anxiety in students. KONSELI: Guidance and Counseling Journal, 3(1), 259-267.

Tokgozoglu, L., & Canpolat, U. (2020). Does depression and anxiety increase subclinical atherosclerosis more in dyslipidemic women than men? London: SAGE Publications.

Zaharah, Z., & Kirilova, G. I. (2020). Impact of Corona virus outbreak towards teaching and learning activities in Indonesia. SALAM: Syar'i Social and Cultural Journal, 7(3), 12-20.